The ecological conditions where the tribal people live are normally characterised by the hilly and forested environment. Tribalsí occupation and way of life are intrinsically linked with ecological situation of the area. Also, the ecological differences reflect different response to the economic pursuit for instance, shifting cultivation and terraced cultivation. Their basic mode of livelihood has led them to develop a symbiotic relationship with the environment and their social and culture institution. Indeed, economic system has immense socio-cultural and ritual implications having strong harmony with the natural surrounding.
Nagas do not have a scientific definition of ecology however; they have their own way of understanding. And this is manifested through their livelihood. The land and local environment are the basic foundation of the Naga social, culture and economic system. The basic ecological foundation is land and forest. The ecological situation emphasises on the parameters like village territory, land and forest as well as land use system and ownership of land. Ecology is the study of the structure and function of nature and in this context, the ecological structural parameters are village territory, land and forest. On the other hand, ecological functional parameters include the various land use system [agricultural] and land ownership and transfer of land.
Naga historical roots are strongly founded with the land they live. The land is more than just a habitat or a political boundary; it is the basis of their economic system and culture. Besides the functional aspects, socio-cultural practices and organisation play important role. The fact is that these two functional parameters have been sustaining Nagasí livelihood.